The Brain is the most complex and the most important organ in our body that is the centre of the nervous system. The Brain is situated in the head, close to our sensory organs for vision, balance, taste, hearing and smell.
The human Brain weighs about 3 pounds and is the most complex organ, which is made up of billions of cells that continuously interact and work at a lightning speed.
The human Brain consists of three main parts:
The largest part of the Brain that is associated with the conscious thought, sensation and movement is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the left and the right hemispheres. Both the hemispheres appear like mirror images of each other, though they are different. The movements of the left side of the body are controlled by the right hemisphere, whereas the movement of the right side of the body is controlled by the left hemisphere.
Left Hemisphere: The left hemisphere basically controls and regulates the language, speech, the hand movements and other right side body movements.
Right Hemisphere: The right hemisphere controls the left-sided body movements.
The cerebrum is made up if four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal and the occipital lobes.
The Brain stem is the lower part of our Brain that starts from the Brain and ends at the spinal cord. The Brain stem consists of nerve fibers, which carry the signals to and from all parts of the body. The Brain stem has many vital functions which include sensory and motor pathway, respiratory and cardiac functions and reflexes of the body. The Brain stem includes the pons and the medulla.
The pons consists of many control areas of the eyes and the face movements.
The medulla is situated in the lowest part of the Brainstem and it is the most important part of the Brain as it contains the critical control centres for the lungs and the heart.
The cerebellum is situated at the lower back of the head and it is connected to the Brain stem. The cerebellum controls and regulates all the motor functions like walking, posture, balance and our general motor coordination.
The hypothalamus is a region of the Brain that works with the pituitary gland to control the hormonal process of the body as well as the temperature, hunger, thirst and mood.
The pituitary gland is a small, bean-sized organ that is situated at the base of the Brain and is also connected to the hypothalamus. This gland is important as it secretes essential hormones for sexual and growth maturation.
The thalamus is situated near the centre of the Brain. The thalamus regulates input and output to and from the Brain, and it also controls the sensation of attention and pain.